Pakistan: Nuclear Helpers


Supplied New Labs plutonium extraction plant


Supplied Kanupp power reactor including fuel and spare parts until 1976


Supplied a tested bomb design and high-enriched uranium fuel
Supplied special magnets to help gas centrifuges enrich uranium
Building a power reactor and training technicians at Chashma despite de facto international nuclear supply embargo
Helping to build a secret plutonium producing reactor at Khusab
Supplied tritium that could help increase bomb yields


Designed Chashma plutonium extraction plant
Contracted to renovate controls at Kanupp


Supplied nuclear fuel fabrication equipment and technology, including high-powered welding and drilling lasers
Supplied factory to make uranium hexafluoride used at Kahuta enrichment plant
Sold electronic components to control gas centrifuges
Exported “preforms” for gas centrifuge scoops for Kahuta enrichment plant
Supplied natural lithium, useful in making tritium for boosted nuclear weapons
Set up tritium gas purification plant and provided a small amount of tritium for testing
Supplied information for design and construction of secret research reactor


Source of centrifuge design, materials and manufacturing equipment secretly procured by Dr. A.Q. Khan


Sold computers and software useful in nuclear weapon design


Supplied flash X-ray machines, useful in nuclear weapon development


Supplied components for centrifuge enrichment plant
Supplied high vacuum valves and gasification and solidification units

United States

Supplied Pakistan’s first research reactor and fuel which Pakistan used for secret experiments in tritium production