Pakistan continues to pursue an ambitious program for building ballistic missiles. Pakistan has acquired a series of solid fuel missiles from China, a series of liquid fuel missiles from North Korea, and the equipment needed to produce both.
Hatf-1A: In February 2000, Pakistan tested the Hatf-1A surface-to-surface solid fuel missile developed by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). According to one report, the missile has a range of 100 kilometers, has improved accuracy and can carry larger payloads than the Hatf-1. The launch broke Pakistan’s traditional pattern of testing missiles only in response to such tests by India.
Ghauri: In April 1998, Pakistan tested the Ghauri (Hatf-5), its version of the North Korean Nodong. The nuclear-capable surface-to-surface missile uses liquid fuel and can carry a 700 kilogram payload 1,000-1,500 kilometers. It has been acquired by and is being developed by the A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories (KRL).
Shaheen: The day after the Ghauri-II missile test, Pakistan successfully tested the solid fueled Shaheen-I (Hatf-4). Reports claim the missile is based on the Chinese M-11, and has a range of 600-750 kilometers. It is being developed by the National Development Complex (NDC).
Shaheen-II: At the annual Pakistan Day parade in March 2000, Pakistan unveiled the road-mobile Shaheen-II missile. Pakistani authorities claim that the two-stage solid fuel missile can carry a 1,000 kilogram payload 2,500 kilometers.
Chinese and North Korean assistance
In addition to supplying missiles outright, China and North Korea have recently provided Pakistan with equipment to help produce missiles.
In April 1999 it was reported that China’s Poly Ventures Company transferred American-manufactured specialized metal-working presses and a special furnace to the NDC, and the New York Times reported in July 2000 that China had increased its shipments of specialty steels, guidance systems and technical expertise to Pakistan.
According to Jane’s Defence Weekly, Indian officials seized a North Korean ship believed to be carrying machinery destined for a Pakistani missile factory at Fatehgunj in June 1999. Indian investigators claimed the cargo included a heavy duty press, lathe machines, a plate bending machine, toroidal air bottles used in missile guidance, and other equipment used in the production of missile systems.
For more information on Pakistan’s missile program, see “Pakistan’s Nuclear-capable Missiles,” Volume 5, Issue 1 (January-February 1999) of the Risk Report.